In recent years, more and more scientific research has proven that early application of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes is beneficial to controlling blood sugar and reducing the occurrence of complications. Diabetic patients also have technical problems when injecting insulin at home. Improper application of the injection can be harmful. Insulin injection technology is an important part of insulin treatment, but many diabetic patients have some unsatisfactory problems during the insulin injection process, such as lack of knowledge about subcutaneous fat hyperplasia and reuse of needles, which may cause blood sugar fluctuations. Blood sugar levels are not well controlled.

Which syringe to choose?

There are two types of syringes commonly used at present, one is a special syringe for insulin and the other is an insulin pen. The scale of the special insulin syringe is the insulin unit, which is not easy to make mistakes. Because it is disposable, it saves the trouble of sterilization. The reason why a special syringe should be used to inject insulin and cannot be replaced by an ordinary syringe is because the scale units marked on the two are different. The scale marked on the special insulin syringe is insulin units, while the scale marked on the ordinary syringe is milliliters. The smallest unit of an ordinary syringe is usually 0.1 ml, which is equivalent to 4 units of insulin after conversion. However, the insulin dose that most patients need to inject is not an integer multiple of 4. Therefore, if a regular syringe is used, the patient not only needs to convert doses and volumes, but it is also difficult to accurately draw the required dose.

insulin syringe

Insulin injection pen is a tool for injecting insulin. Its shape is similar to a pen. Then you can put the insulin solution into the pen core. There will be a specific pushing device inside. After installing it, screw it on sterilely before injecting. The injection needle then goes through a series of operations to accurately inject insulin into the body.

insulin injection pen

Insulin pens are much more convenient than the traditional syringes. They also have advantages in avoiding skin infections and injecting accurate doses. They are also more convenient for patients to carry. They only need to add insulin at the beginning. After the liquid medicine is put in, you can use it until all the liquid medicine is used up, and then replace the refill, which is very convenient.

Of course, when using an insulin injection pen, you also need to pay attention to certain precautions. For example, you must pay attention to local skin disinfection before use. Insulin injection needles cannot be reused, at least not multiple times. In addition, When adjusting the scale, pay attention to adjust it accurately according to the doctor’s instructions.

Where is the injection given?

The suitable parts of the human body for insulin injection are the abdomen, outer thighs, outer upper arms and outer upper sides of the arms. In the abdomen, injections should be avoided within a circular area with a radius of 2.5cm with the umbilicus as the center. The closer to the sides of the waist, the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue will also become thinner, so it is easy to cause intramuscular injection. Insulin should be injected into the subcutaneous fat layer. If it reaches the muscle layer, it may cause hypoglycemia because muscle absorbs insulin quickly.

When injecting into the buttocks, the upper outer part of the buttocks should be selected. For thigh injections, choose the outside of the upper end of the thigh, not the area near the knee. For upper arm injections, you can choose the side or back site. The subcutaneous tissue in this site is thicker and the risk of intramuscular injection is lower.

For better insulin absorption, choosing the best injection site is critical. Different parts of the body absorb insulin at different rates. Generally speaking, the absorption rate is abdomen > upper arms > thighs and buttocks. Generally speaking, patients with diabetes will prefer the abdomen as the injection site. Not only because the abdomen is absorbed faster, but also because the subcutaneous fat in the abdomen is thicker and evenly distributed, making it less easy to inject into the muscle layer. Moreover, the abdominal absorption of insulin is even and effective.

The commonly mentioned upper arm injection site mainly refers to the outer 1/4 of the upper arm. Although it is absorbed quickly, the subcutaneous tissue is thin and it is easy to inject into the muscle layer. The absorption rate of thighs and buttocks is similar and slower. Among them, injections on the front and outer sides of the thighs are not suitable for thin people with diabetes, while the subcutaneous tissue of the buttocks is thick, so injections on the buttocks can better control fasting blood sugar.

Diabetic patients with high blood sugar, especially those whose blood sugar value exceeds 11.1mmol/L, should choose a site with fast absorption for injection, such as the abdomen. In addition, abdominal injection is also suitable for diabetics who use short-acting insulin and medium- and short-acting insulin. Long-acting insulin generally has no site restrictions. In order to distinguish the commonly used site (abdomen) of short-acting insulin, it can be injected in the buttocks. In addition, buttock injection is suitable for medium- and long-acting insulin. Especially for patients with diabetes who want medium-acting insulin to last longer, they can also inject the buttocks.

Experts remind that human skin begins with the epidermis, then the dermis, then the subcutaneous tissue, and then the muscle, and insulin needs to be injected into the subcutaneous layer. The muscle layer is rich in blood vessels, and insulin absorption is too fast, which can easily cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is best to use ultra-fine and ultra-short needles in the arms and thighs, the two places where injection into the muscles is easy.

What precautions should be taken when using an insulin syringe?

Patients need to wash their hands before injecting, check the insulin type and injection dose, drain the air from the syringe, select areas with more subcutaneous fat, such as both sides of the abdomen, upper outer thighs, etc., disinfect the skin with alcohol cotton balls, and wait for the alcohol to After drying, pinch up the injected skin with your thumb, index finger, and middle finger. Insert the 4mm needle vertically, and inject the 6mm needle at a 45° angle. Push the liquid forward, hold it for a few seconds, slowly pull out the needle, and press with a cotton ball. There is no need to massage the injection site.

It should be noted that when injecting insulin, the injection site must be rotated frequently, and the interval between each injection point should be more than 1 cm. Avoid repeated injections at the same site, otherwise it will easily lead to local subcutaneous fat atrophy or hyperplasia, affecting the absorption of insulin. In addition, avoid using alcohol-based reagents to wipe the needle tip. Alcohol will remove the coating on the needle tip, roughen the needle core, and increase pain during injection.

For unused insulin that has been opened, it can be stored at room temperature in a cool, dry place below 25 degrees Celsius, away from light and heat. The shelf life of insulin stored at room temperature after opening should generally not exceed 4 weeks. If the insulin is unopened and will not be used in a short period of time, it is recommended to store it in the refrigerator at 2 to 8 degrees Celsius and not in the freezer. Do not place it in the refrigerator close to the wall of the refrigerator, otherwise the insulin may be damaged due to freezing; do not place it next to the refrigerator door. Repeated opening and closing of the refrigerator door can cause insulin to oscillate repeatedly, which will affect the potency of insulin and lead to a decrease in hypoglycemic effect. .

How to overcome injection pain?

1. Do not reuse syringes. After repeated use, the needle will become dull, which will increase the pain during injection. In severe cases, the needle will remain in the skin tissue.

2. The needle insertion speed should be fast. Be decisive when inserting the needle. The slower the needle is inserted, the stronger the pain will be. ​

3. Insulin needs to return to room temperature before injection. Insulin has just been taken out of the refrigerator. Due to the low temperature, it will cause pain when injected. Therefore, insulin in general use does not need to be placed in the refrigerator and can be placed in a cool place. ​

4. Keep the muscles at the injection site relaxed. ​

5. Inject after the alcohol evaporates. If the alcohol used to disinfect the skin is injected before it dries, the alcohol will be carried from the eye of the needle to the subcutaneous tissue, causing pain. ​

6. Change the injection site. Each injection should be kept 2 cm away from the previous injection site to avoid skin infection and subcutaneous induration. ​

7. Pinch the skin at the injection site with your hands. When injecting, use one hand to gently pinch the skin about 3 cm wide at the injection site and cause slight pain before injecting. It is convenient for injection and can disperse the pain caused by the needle during injection. ​

8. Do not change the direction when removing the needle. After the injection is completed, maintain the original needle insertion direction and quickly pull out the needle. If you find pain at the injection site, you should stop injecting at that site until the pain disappears. ​

In short, you need to learn some techniques and methods to inject insulin at home in order to achieve the best results, control blood sugar and reduce complications. If the operation is incorrect, or the operation method is changed in order to save a few money, it will cost more money and increase the pain if complications or other problems occur, which is not worth the loss.